Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

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Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2021
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during each of the reporting periods. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The Company’s significant estimates consist of:
the valuation of stock-based compensation;
the valuation of the assets and liabilities acquired of Systat, Ten Degrees, Nanotron, Game Your Game, Visualix, and CXApp as described in Note 5, Note 6, Note 7, Note 8, Note 9 and Note 10, respectively, as well as the valuation of the Company’s common stock issued in the transactions;
the allowance for doubtful accounts;
the valuation of loans receivable;
the valuation of equity securities;
the valuation allowance for deferred tax assets; and
impairment of long-lived assets and goodwill.
Restricted Cash Restricted CashIn connection with certain transactions, the Company may be required to deposit assets, including cash or investment shares, in escrow accounts. The assets held in escrow are subject to various contingencies that may exist with respect to such transactions. Upon resolution of those contingencies or the expiration of the escrow period, some or all the escrow amounts may be used and the balance released to the Company.
Short-term investments and investment in equity securities - fair value
Short-term investments
Investments with maturities greater than 90 days but less than one year are classified as short-term investments on the consolidated balance sheets and consist of US Treasury Bills. Accrued interest on US Treasury bills are also classified as short term investment.
Our short-term investments are considered available for use in current operations, are classified as available-for-sale securities.
Investment in equity securities- fair value
Investment securities—fair value consist primarily of investments in equity securities and are carried at fair value in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 321, Investments-Equity Securities (“ASC 321”). These securities are marked to market based on the respective publicly quoted market prices of the equity securities adjusted for liquidity. These securities transactions are recorded on a trade date basis. Any unrealized appreciation or depreciation on investment securities is reported in the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations within Unrealized Loss on Equity Securities. The Unrealized loss on equity securities for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 was $29.0 million. There were no unrealized gains or losses on equity securities during the three and six months ended June 30, 2020.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue Recognition
The Company recognizes revenue when control is transferred of the promised products or services to its customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for those products or services. The Company derives revenue from software as a service, design and implementation services for its Indoor Intelligence systems, and professional services for work performed in conjunction with its systems.
Hardware and Software Revenue Recognition

For sales of hardware and software products, the Company’s performance obligation is satisfied at a point in time when they are shipped to the customer. This is when the customer has title to the product and the risks and rewards of ownership. The delivery of products to Inpixon's customers occurs in a variety of ways, including (i) as a physical product shipped from the Company’s warehouse, (ii) via drop-shipment by a third-party vendor, or (iii) via electronic delivery with respect to software licenses. The Company leverages drop-ship arrangements with many of its vendors and suppliers to deliver products to customers without having to physically hold the inventory at its warehouse. In such arrangements, the Company negotiates the sale price with the customer, pays the supplier directly for the product shipped, bears credit risk of collecting payment from its customers and is ultimately responsible for the acceptability of the product and ensuring that such product meets the standards and requirements of the customer. Accordingly, the Company is the principal in the transaction with the customer and records revenue on a gross basis. The Company receives fixed consideration for sales of hardware and software products. The Company’s customers generally pay within 30 to 60 days from the receipt of a customer approved invoice. The Company has elected the practical expedient to expense the costs of obtaining a contract when they are incurred because the amortization period of the asset that otherwise would have been recognized is less than a year.
Software As A Service Revenue Recognition
With respect to sales of the Company’s maintenance, consulting and other service agreements including the Company’s digital advertising and electronic services, customers pay fixed monthly fees in exchange for the Company’s service. The Company’s performance obligation is satisfied over time as the digital advertising and electronic services are provided continuously throughout the service period. The Company recognizes revenue evenly over the service period using a time-based measure because the Company is providing continuous access to its service.
Professional Services Revenue Recognition
The Company’s professional services include milestone, fixed fee and time and materials contracts.
Professional services under milestone contracts are accounted for using the percentage of completion method. As soon as the outcome of a contract can be estimated reliably, contract revenue is recognized in the consolidated statement of operations in proportion to the stage of completion of the contract. Contract costs are expensed as incurred. Contract costs include all amounts that relate directly to the specific contract, are attributable to contract activity, and are specifically chargeable to the customer under the terms of the contract.
Professional services are also contracted on the fixed fee and time and materials basis. Fixed fees are paid monthly, in phases, or upon acceptance of deliverables. The Company’s time and materials contracts are paid weekly or monthly based on hours worked. Revenue on time and material contracts is recognized based on a fixed hourly rate as direct labor hours are expended. Materials, or other specified direct costs, are reimbursed as actual costs and may include markup. The Company has elected the practical expedient to recognize revenue for the right to invoice because the Company’s right to consideration corresponds directly with the value to the customer of the performance completed to date. For fixed fee contracts including maintenance service provided by in house personnel, the Company recognizes revenue evenly over the service period using a time-based measure because the Company is providing continuous service. Because the Company’s contracts have an expected duration of one year or less, the Company has elected the practical expedient in ASC 606-10-50-14(a) to not disclose information about its remaining performance obligations. Anticipated losses are recognized as soon as they become known. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, the Company did not incur any such losses. These amounts are based on known and estimated factors.
License Revenue Recognition
The Company enters into contracts with its customers whereby it grants a non-exclusive on-premise license for the use of its proprietary software. The contracts provide for either (i) a one year stated term with a one year renewal option, (ii) a perpetual term or (iii) a two year term for students with the option to upgrade to a perpetual license at the end of the term. The contracts may also provide for yearly on-going maintenance services for a specified price, which includes maintenance services, designated support, and enhancements, upgrades and improvements to the software (the “Maintenance Services”), depending on the contract. Licenses for on-premises software provide the customer with a right to use the software as it exists when made available to the customer. All software provides customers with the same functionality and differ mainly in the duration over which the customer benefits from the software.
The timing of the Company's revenue recognition related to the licensing revenue stream is dependent on whether the software licensing agreement entered into represents a good or service. Software that relies on an entity’s IP and is delivered only through a hosting arrangement, where the customer cannot take possession of the software, is a service. A software arrangement that is provided through an access code or key represents the transfer of a good. Licenses for on-premises software represents a good and provide the customer with a right to use the software as it exists when made available to the customer. Customers may purchase perpetual licenses or subscribe to licenses, which provide customers with the same functionality and differ mainly in the duration over which the customer benefits from the software. Revenue from distinct on-premises licenses is recognized upfront at the point in time when the software is made available to the customer.
Renewals or extensions of licenses are evaluated as distinct licenses (i.e., a distinct good or service), and revenue attributed to the distinct good or service cannot be recognized until (1) the entity provides the distinct license (or makes the license available) to the customer and (2) the customer is able to use and benefit from the distinct license. Renewal contracts are not combined with original contracts, and, as a result, the renewal right is evaluated in the same manner as all other additional rights granted after the initial contract. The revenue is not recognized until the customer can begin to use and benefit from the license, which is typically at the beginning of the license renewal period. Therefore, the Company recognizes revenue resulting from renewal of licensed software at a point in time, specifically, at the beginning of the license renewal period.
The Company recognizes revenue related to Maintenance Services evenly over the service period using a time-based measure because the Company is providing continuous service and the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits provided by the Company’s performance as the services are performed.
Contract BalancesThe timing of the Company’s revenue recognition may differ from the timing of payment by its customers. The Company records a receivable when revenue is recognized prior to payment and the Company has an unconditional right to payment. Alternatively, when payment precedes the provision of the related services, the Company records deferred revenue until the performance obligations are satisfied.The Company recognizes revenue when control is transferred of the promised products or services to its customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for those products or services. The Company derives revenue from software as a service, design and implementation services for its Indoor Intelligence systems, and professional services for work performed in conjunction with its systems recognition policy.
Stock-Based Compensation
Stock-Based Compensation
The Company accounts for options granted to employees by measuring the cost of services received in exchange for the award of equity instruments based upon the fair value of the award on the date of grant. The fair value of that award is then ratably recognized as an expense over the period during which the recipient is required to provide services in exchange for that award.
Options and warrants granted to consultants and other non-employees are recorded at fair value as of the grant date and subsequently adjusted to fair value at the end of each reporting period until such options and warrants vest, and the fair value of such instruments, as adjusted, is expensed over the related vesting period.
The Company measures the cost of services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the fair value of the award. The fair value of the award is measured on the grant date and recognized over the period services are required to be provided in exchange for the award, usually the vesting period. Forfeitures of unvested stock options are recorded when they occur.
Net income (Loss) Per Share
Net Income (Loss) Per Share
The Company computes net income (loss) per share in accordance with ASC 260, Earnings per Share ("ASC 260"). ASC 260 requires presentation of both basic and diluted earnings per share (“EPS”) on the face of the income statement. Basic EPS is computed by dividing net income (loss) available to common shareholders (i.e., the numerator) by the weighted average number of shares outstanding (i.e., the denominator) during the period. Diluted EPS gives effect to all dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period using the treasury stock method and convertible preferred stock using the if-converted method. In computing diluted EPS, the average stock price for the period is used in determining the number of shares assumed to be purchased from the exercise of stock options or warrants. Diluted EPS excludes all dilutive potential shares if their effect is anti-dilutive.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents, investments in equity securities, short-term investment, accounts receivable, notes receivable, accounts payable, and short-term debt. Company determines the estimated fair value of such financial instruments presented in these financial statements using available market information and appropriate methodologies. These financial instruments, except for short-term debt and investments in equity securities, are stated at their respective historical carrying amounts, which approximate fair value due to their short-term nature. Investments in equity securities are marked to market based on the respective publicly quoted market prices of the equity securities adjusted for liquidity, as necessary. Short-term debt approximates market value based on similar terms available to the Company in the market place.
Recently Issued and Adopted Accounting Standards
Recently Issued and Adopted Accounting Standards
In December 2019, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2019-12, "Income Taxes (Topic 740) Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes" ("ASU 2019-12"), which is intended to simplify various aspects related to accounting for income taxes. ASU 209-12 removes certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740 and also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application. ASU 2019-12 became effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2021. The new guidance was effective upon issuance of this final accounting standards update. The Company has adopted this standard and the adoption did not have a material impact on its condensed consolidated financial statements or disclosures.
In October 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-10, "Codification Improvements" (ASU 2020-10"), which updates various codification topics by clarifying or improving disclosure requirements to align with the SEC's regulations. The effective date of the standard is for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2020 for public entities. The Company adopted ASU 2020-10 as of the reporting period beginning January 1, 2021. The new guidance was effective upon issuance of this final accounting standards update. The Company has adopted this standard and the adoption did not have a material impact on its condensed consolidated financial statements or disclosures.
In May 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-04, "Issuer's Accounting for Certain Modifications or Exchanges of Freestanding Equity Classified Written Call Options'" ("ASU 2021-04"), which introduces a new way for companies to account for warrants either as stock compensation or derivatives. Under the new guidance, if the modification does not change the instrument's classification as equity, the company accounts for the modification as an exchange of the original instrument for a new instrument. In general, if the fair value of the "new" instrument is greater than the fair value of the "original" instrument, the excess is recognized based on the substance of the transaction, as if the issuer has paid cash. The effective date of the standard is for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2021 for all entities, and early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the new guidance and does not expect the adoption of this guidance will have a material impact on its condensed consolidated financial statements and disclosures.
Subsequent Events
Subsequent Events
The Company evaluates events and/or transactions occurring after the balance sheet date and before the issue date of the condensed consolidated financial statements to determine if any of those events and/or transactions requires adjustment to or disclosure in the condensed consolidated financial statements.